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研究了這些知識,你就能拿到“諾貝爾獎”的10萬億獎金了!
來源:21英語網    日期: 2019-09-17

為啥袋熊的便便是方的?吃披薩活得久?5歲小孩能分泌多少唾液?……

這些聽上去就風馬牛不相及的科(qi)學(pa)研究,卻在一項“諾貝爾獎”的召喚下齊聚一堂,然后還能獲得價值10萬億的一筆巨額獎金!

這……感覺很刺激,很帶勁,也很……不嚴肅對不對?Jio著有點不像高大上的諾貝爾獎啊?

你的感覺沒有錯,因為這其實是一年一度的搞笑諾貝爾獎(Ig Nobel)!


 
據其官網介紹,搞笑諾貝爾獎是為了獎勵那些令人“先發笑、后思考”的成就,紀念那些非同尋常的研究,以創造性為榮,激發人們對科學、醫藥以及技術方面的興趣。

The Ig Nobel Prizes honor achievements that make people LAUGH, and then THINK. The prizes are intended to celebrate the unusual, honor the imaginative — and spur people’s interest in science, medicine, and technology.

每年9月,搞笑諾貝爾獎都在美國哈佛大學的桑德斯劇院舉行頒獎禮,現場還有1100人的豪華奇葩觀禮團,見證獲獎者領獎。

Every September, in a gala ceremony in Harvard’s Sanders Theatre, 1100 splendidly eccentric spectators watch the new winners step forward to accept their Prizes. 

至于名字,Ig Nobel則是ignoble(不光彩)的諧音。

什么?還惦記那10萬億的巨額獎金?沒錯,當然有,不過貨幣單位則是津巴布韋幣,很不值錢就是了。而且,當獲獎人的感言太過冗長時(時限1分鐘),還會有一個8歲的小姑娘站出來說,“停了吧,我煩了”!

The winners received $10 trillion Zimbabwean dollars, which is virtually worthless, and each was given one minute to deliver an acceptance speech enforced by an 8-year-old girl whining “Please stop. I’m bored.”



當然,還有“大道至簡”的獎杯:



好了,回到今年的搞笑諾貝爾獎,不出意外,同樣引發觀眾爆笑!

The winners are always sure to cause a few laughs, and this year's are no different.

究竟哪些研究成果捧得大獎了呢?

來來來,先看個總結:
 


然后咱們一項一項來鑒賞!

醫學獎
MEDICINE PRIZE

 

Silvano Gallus收集證據,證明吃披薩可以防范疾病,延緩死亡,當然這披薩得是在意大利做的,還要在意大利吃。

Silvano Gallus, for collecting evidence that pizza might protect against illness and death, if the pizza is made and eaten in Italy.

結論:“在意大利消化的披薩,可以預防很多受到飲食影響的慢性疾病:消化道癌癥和梗阻。”

“We found that pizza consumption in Italy was protective for many chronic diseases that are known to be influenced by diet: digestive tract cancers and infarction,” Gallus said in an email.

至于為什么一定要限制在意大利,可能因為研究人員本身就是個意大利人吧……



醫學教育獎
MEDICAL EDUCATION PRIZE 

Karen Pryor 和Theresa McKeon,用一種簡單的動物訓練方法——響片訓練——訓練醫生來進行骨科手術。

Karen Pryor and Theresa McKeon, for using a simple animal-training technique— called “clicker training” —to train surgeons to perform orthopedic surgery.
 


通俗來說,就是通過可以發出響聲的工具來強化對象的積極行為。

In short, a mechanical device that emits an audible click is used to reinforce positive behavior.

結論:通過這種方法,醫生們在使用手術工具的時候更有信心,更冷靜,更平和。

“With our method, they learned to use the tools with great confidence and calmness and turned them into calm, pleasant, serene people,” she said.

解剖學獎
ANATOMY PRIZE 



Roger Mieusset 和 Bourras Bengoudifa監測了法國男性郵差在穿衣服和不穿衣服狀態下兩邊陰囊的溫度。

Roger Mieusset and Bourras Bengoudifa, for measuring scrotal temperature asymmetry in naked and clothed postmen in France.

結論:穿著衣服的時候,左邊的略高一籌。

According to his studies, the left one is warmer, but only when a man has his clothes on. 

化學獎
CHEMISTRY PRIZE 


 
日本科學家測量了5歲小朋友一天會分泌多少口水。

Shigeru Watanabe, Mineko Ohnishi, Kaori Imai, Eiji Kawano, and Seiji Igarashi, for estimating the total saliva volume produced per day by a typical five-year-old child

注意了,試驗是在25年前完成的,對象則是自己的兒子!可以說,很有為科學奉獻的精神了!在頒獎現場,孩子們也來“復制試驗”:咀嚼香蕉(不要咽了),然后吐出來稱重!



  
結論:五歲小朋友一天大約分泌500毫升的口水。
 
工程學獎
ENGINEERING PRIZE 
 
Iman Farahbakhsh發明自動嬰兒換尿布機



Iman Farahbakhsh, for inventing a diaper-changing machine for use on human infants.
 
對于家長來說,可能如同大救星一般的發明了,雖然怎么看都像個烘干機、洗衣機之類。


 
經濟學獎
ECONOMICS PRIZE 
 


Habip Gedik, Timothy A. Voss和 Andreas Voss研究了哪國的紙幣是傳播危險細菌的最佳媒介。

Habip Gedik, Timothy A. Voss, and Andreas Voss, for testing which country’s paper money is best at transmitting dangerous bacteria.

結論:羅馬尼亞的官方貨幣,“羅馬尼亞列伊”勝出!聚合物結構會使高耐藥病原體生長和傳播。

The researchers said Romanian leu include a polymer fiber to discourage counterfeiting and improve durability, which allows the growth and transmission of drug resistant pathogens.
 
不過科學家Voss貼心提示:用信用卡或電子支付可破解難題!而他自己幾乎不用現金了!

“Use plastic and electronic payment,” he said via email. “Actually, I hardly ever use cash anymore.”

和平獎
PEACE PRIZE 

這些科學家研究的是:測量撓癢癢的舒適度

Ghada A. bin Saif, Alexandru Papoiu, Liliana Banari, Francis McGlone, Shawn G. Kwatra, Yiong-Huak Chan, and Gil Yosipovitch, for trying to measure the pleasurability of scratching an itch.

現場發癢癢撓的操作,效果拔群!


 
結論:這可就要分情況了!撓腳踝最爽,然后是后背和前臂。

As part of an international team, McGlone helped map out which parts of the body are most pleasurable to scratch. The ankles ranked highest, the researchers found, and then the back and forearm.

心理學獎
PSYCHOLOGY PRIZE 



Fritz Strack曾經發現嘴里叼著筆,會讓人變得開心——然而后來又發現,自己的研究并不成功。

Fritz Strack, for discovering that holding a pen in one’s mouth makes one smile, which makes one happier — and for then discovering that it does not.

結論:沒能重復自己的試驗,這樣的重大翻車事故在心理學方面肯定是有價值的……
 
物理學獎
PHYSICS PRIZE 
 


一眾研究人員研究了為什么袋熊便便是方的,又是如何形成的。

Patricia Yang, Alexander Lee, Miles Chan, Alynn Martin, Ashley Edwards, Scott Carver, and David Hu, for studying how, and why, wombats make cube-shaped poo.

其中來自亞特蘭大佐治亞理工大學的Patricia Yang 和 David Hu斬獲了二人的第二座搞笑諾貝爾獎杯!

Patricia Yang and David Hu, both engineers at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, celebrated their second Ig Nobel prize at the ceremony. 

今年,他們和團隊一道研究袋熊的便便——這形狀在動物界也是獨一無二了。

This year, as part of a larger team, the two share the physics prize for working out how wombats make cube-shaped faeces. The feat, thought to be unique in the animal world, helps them construct stable piles of dung to mark their territory. 
 


結論,方便便結構穩定,方便標記領地;而形成方形的關鍵,則在于腸道末端的形狀!

那么,看完今年的搞笑諾貝爾獎,你的感覺如何呢?

綜合來源:英國那些事兒,果殼,Huff Post,CNN,Ig Nobe官網,The Guardian




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